Bibliography Threatened Species

Here’s the links to all the info we obtained for Threatened Species: 



Arbib, Adrian. “Leopard Skins in Taxidermist’s Workshop.” 30 April 1970. Corbis. Corbis. 10 April 2009 <;


British Broadcasting Corporation. “China Blamed For Over-Fishing Errors.” BBC NEWS. 29 Nov 2001. BBC News. 1 Apr

 2009 <;.

This is an article from BBC News, a top news source used to discuss current worldwide affairs. The article shows the over exploitation of Chinese seas due to the economy and its impacts on the environment globally.


Cho, Violet. “Burma’s Vanishing Orchids.” Irrawaddy Publishing Group. 20 Feb. 2009 6 April 2009 <;.This source is a website from The Irrawaddy is a publishing source of a news magazine that covers Burma and Southeast Asia. This website was used for information on how Burma’s merchants make fake reports on the amount of plants that are endangered so, people are unaware of these plants and their threatened status.


Eguchi, Kazuhiro and Amano, Hitoha. “Spread of Exotic Birds In Japan.” Ornithological Science Vol. 3 (2004): 3-11.

This is a scholarly journal article which is based off of an ornithological magazine which mainly discusses birds. I used this source to see the breeding of exotic bird’s impact in Japan and how the projected damage could be far greater if they don’t pursue strict laws to stop the breeding of exotic birds in Japan.


Ehrlich, Paul. Betrayal of Science and Reason. Washington D.C: Island Press, 1996.

This source is a book which uses information from the Center for Conservation of Biology; it discusses the scientific aspects behind biodiversity and threatened species. From this book, I gained knowledge on the loss of biodiversity’s impact on future generations and the impact from population and economic growth towards the increasing demand for biological resources.


“Herb Filled Asian Marketplace.” 08 March 2009. Responding to Climate Change 2008. RTCC. 10 April 2009. <;


Hua, Peng and Haiying, Ma. “Moderate Use and Impactive Conservation of
Wild Medicinal Plants In China.” Brief Introduction to China’s Biodiversity Conservation Fund. CBCF. 01 April 2009 <;. This source is a website of a nonprofit organization (China’s Biodiversity Fund) that specializes in biodiversity conservation in China. I used this site to give me a brief background about the wild medicinal plants used in China as well as the fact that these medicinal plants need to be cultivated to continue growth of biodiversity.


“In Laos, A Rare Deer Is Discovered Alive and Well, Despite War and Over-Hunting.” ScienceDaily 18 September 2002. Wildlife Conservation Society. 31 March 2009 <­ /releases/2002/09/020918063540.htm>. This source is a website called ScienceDaily which give articles over research news over a variety of subjects. I used this site to provide me with information about the over-hunting in Laos of the Eld’s deer which is an endangered species.


“Japanese Fishing Industry.” 17 July 2008. Passport. Foreign Policy. 10 April 2009        <;


Lam, Tran. “BIODIVERSITY: Overfishing Threatens Vietnam’s Marine

 Life.” Inter Press Service News Agency. 2005. Inter Press Service. 1 Apr 2009

 <;. Inter Press Service is a global news agency that covers current global affairs. Overfishing has become the cause of environmental issues, and because of illegal exploitation Vietnams’ anchovies will become extremely rare.


McQuaid, John. “Overfished Waters Running On Empty.” The Pulitzer Prize. 24 March

 1996. Times-Picayune. 3 Apr 2009 <;.

The Pulitzer Prize is an award given in order to honor excellent writers making this site very knowledgeable. The site discusses how overfishing in Thailand has grown into a global economic issue, and destruction of the environment not only in Thailand but its trading partners as well.


Miller, Debra. Biodiversity. Michigan: Gale CENGAGE Learning, 2008.

This source is a book that gives a diverse amount of sources that revolve around the argument of Biodiversity, showing the negative and positive sides of biodiversity. I used this book to find information on what is being done to protect animals as well as benefits of restoring biodiversity.


“Rare Plants and Endangered Species Such As Tigers At Risk From Traditional Medicine.” ScienceDaily. 6 July 2008. World Wildlife Fund. 6 April 2009 <;.This source is a website called ScienceDaily which gives articles over present-day research news over a variety of subjects. This particular website was used for information on how people overharvest and illegally import endangered species.


Suzuki, David. “Bottom Trawling.” June 2006. Greenthinkers. Greenthinkers. 09 April 2009 <;



 “Thailand: Greenpeace Educates Tuna Industry On How To Make More Money.” Environmental Industry News.” 02 June 2008. Port of Entry. 02 April 2009 <;.

This source is a website that provides information mainly on environmental business along with a wide range of certified staff members. I used this site to find information on the influence tuna has on the economy in Thailand and the impact overfishing has caused on the environment in Thailand.


Walsh, Bryan. “The New Age of Extinction.” Time13 April 2009:43-57.

Time is a nationally based magazine and one of the most renowned publications in the United States. It gave information on the types of endangered species along with a case study on endangered animals.


Winsor, Malcom. “Fish Farming Equipment Header Rearing Tanks.”Purewell Fish

Farming Equipment. Purewell. 09 April 2009



Winter, Steve. “Burmese Fishermen Use Dynamite to Stun Fish in a Local

Waterway.” National Geographic. National Geographic. 09 April 2009



Wootton, Timothy. “Spread and impact of The Introduced Japanese Seaweed, Sargassum Muticum, In Native Kelp Forests of The San Juan Archipelago.” vetmed. The University of Chicago.  01 April 2009 <;.

This is a website that comes from The University of Chicago and gives several references to other links that this research has been publicized into. I used this source to look at the impacts of biotic invasion of Japanese seaweed into the forests of San Juan, and the impact of Japan’s exploitation of this seaweed.



Qui, Elluz Chong. “Environmental Literacy Council.” Indo-Burma. 25 June 2008. The

Environmental Literacy Council. 2 Apr 2009 <;.This site shows background information for global environmental problems by using information from text books as well as scientific educators.  Burma’s habitat loss has influenced several types of medical plants and has caused several animals to become endangered due to overfishing and materials used in the process.






April 20, 2009 at 4:50 am Leave a comment

Notes on Threatened Species 1

Fish farming is a popular form of aquaculture, in which fish are raised commercially in small tanks. Farmed fish are kept in such small areas that fish rub alongside one another as well as their cages. This damages both their fins and tails which causes diseases and parasite problems. Species of sea lice have been known to threaten nearby wild fish. Pollution, especially in the nearby waters occurs because farmed fish are fed antibiotics to decrease the risk of disease, there are also masses of feces because of the high density of fish. This causes water ways to be polluted with fish feces as well as drugs and leaves nearby fishes with diseases causing certain species to lower. Intensive aquaculture is a form of fish farming which lowers genetic diversity especially since the breeding is completely controlled by aquaculture operators. This is done in order to evade parasite problems of wild fish.

The methods of fishing are often hazardous to the fish and its environment. Dynamite is one of the main methods of fishing, in this case dynamite is thrown into the sea which paralyzes or kills the fish and allows for fishermen to net the fish. In many circumstances, inedible fishes are killed which lowers biodiversity since it promotes an abundant growth of certain fish. This destroys the habitat of many fish including the coral reef system which forces fish to migrate to other areas. This causes great harm to the fish since their habitats become smaller which will eventually lead to a complete destruction of the habitat thus endangering many species.  Another method of fishing is to use cyanide this also kills inedible fish. This causes bio erosion which is coral bleaching which also destroys habitats.

Hunting has been around for ages, and even while animal domestication grew hunting was still a major contributor to food supply, this in itself caused endangerment to many animals. In Laos during the Cambodian civil war, Eld’s deer were hunted for their antlers and it is said to have fed the Khmer Rouge Army. During this time the Eld’s deer’s habitat was invaded due to the war which caused the deer to vanish; only recently have they reappeared. Habitat invasion is still occurring as deforestation continues to be implemented. In the past, hunters often killed species that are now threatened for trade especially antlers, ivory, and tiger skins.

However, it was not always for trade, rather to obtain a souvenir like a pelt or head of an animal. This causes many animals to become endangered since hunting has mostly become a sport for recreation this is especially true because in the past there were few laws and regulations that restricted the hunting of endangered or threatened species.

Herbs are often found in history dating back to the first Chinese herbal book which was compiled during the Han Dynasty which lists off 365 medicinal plants as well as their uses. With this in mind, it is often suggested that at the time people were unaware of severe medical conditions and have been using wild medicinal plants to treat severe symptoms. This causes an over use of wild plants, which possibly started in 2700 B.C. and has continued to be over harvested. Many cultural beliefs require the use of traditional medicine, like that of the magnolia in China which has been used to treat cancer, dementia, and heart disease for 5,000 years. Any plant that has been used for that amount of time without cultivation will eventually result in extinction. Throughout history, people have been overusing wild plants without cultivation which lowers biodiversity since there are fewer of certain species around.

Currently, biotic invasions have spread across East Asia, since there are few restrictions on importing of exotic wildlife. There has also been a projected amount of damage on the economy because; governments often have to spend money to repair damages done to the ecosystem. More specifically, Japanese kelp has spread all over San Juan Island Washington. With poor control over the Japanese seaweed, kelp forests will be invaded. This could potentially change native ecosystems, especially the near shore eco system. In Japan, a variety of exotic birds have been introduced. These species were often imported as caged birds but eventually released accidentally and deliberately. While these birds have caused no serious damages except for minor economic damages made by pigeons through crop damage, however it is suggested that serious effects could take place if the breeding of exotic birds is not controlled. 

April 20, 2009 at 4:47 am Leave a comment


We interviewd a varied group of people to see what they knew about the exploitation of biotic resources. Here’s what they said: 


April 20, 2009 at 4:43 am Leave a comment


FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)

UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme)

ITTO (International Tropical Timber Organization)

WWF (World Wildlife Fund)


April 17, 2009 at 2:53 am Leave a comment

What Can You Do To Help?

If you would like to help or support any of the exploited biotic resources discussed, there are options. First and foremost, get educated about the topic. Now you know about what’s going on, learn more and teach those who are uneducated about the environmental woes that the world is experiencing today.

Then get involved! There are many non-profit organizations that could use your help to protect this world from anymore damage other than what has already been caused.  

Donate your time and experience to the cause. We only have one Earth and it is our job to protect it.

April 16, 2009 at 7:01 pm Leave a comment

Overview Threatened Species

What is it?

           Threatened species refer to plants and animals that are at risk of becoming extinct. Many fish species are nearing extinction due to overfishing methods such as, cyanide poisoning, bottom trawling, dynamite, and fish farming. The economies in many countries rely on the fishing market because it is often one of the major food sources in the area.

Land animals are being overhunted for consumer wants. Wild plants are being over harvested for medicinal needs and traditional beliefs. When biodiversity is lowered genetic diversity will in turn lower because there will not be a wide range of species to breed with.

April 16, 2009 at 7:01 pm Leave a comment

Overview Wildlife Trafficking

What is it?

Wildlife trafficking is currently the number one contributor to the endangerment of species in Eastern Asia. Wild animals are captured and taken out of their habitat. They are sometimes harshly abused and prepared for consumption or made into expensive ornamental accessories. Wildlife trade ultimately leads to endangerment of wildlife species.

· In China, freshwater turtles and snakes are sold mostly for their meat and for medical purposes.

· Wildlife trade is China’s 2nd largest industry.

· East Asia is a major center of world demand for wildlife products.

· There are many plant species that are being used for medical purposes in China. The over-use of plants is a danger to ecosystems, a further threat towards extinction.

April 16, 2009 at 7:00 pm Leave a comment

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